cross-objcopy(1) - Linux man page

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Create, modify, and extract from archives nm: List symbols from object files objcopy: Copy and translate object files objdump: Display information from object files ranlib: Objcopy o binary only outputting 16 bit data index to archive contents size: List section sizes and total size strings: List printable strings from files strip: Convert addresses to file and line nlmconv: Converts object code into an NLM windmc: Generator for Windows message resources windres: Manipulate Windows resources dlltool: Create files needed to build and use DLLs readelf: Display the contents of ELF format files elfedit: Command-line options for all utilities Selecting the Target System: How these utilities determine the target Reporting Bugs: Top 1 ar ar [-] p [ mod ] [ --plugin name ] [ --target bfdname ] [ relpos ] [ count ] archive [ member An archive is a single file holding a collection of other files in a structure that makes it possible to retrieve the original individual files called members of the archive.

The original files' contents, mode permissionstimestamp, owner, and group are preserved in the archive, and can be restored on extraction. If it exists, the limit is often 15 characters typical of formats related to a.

An archive with such an index speeds up linking to the library, and allows routines in the library to call each other without regard to their placement in the archive. If an archive lacks the table, another form of ar called ranlib can be used to add just the table. This is useful for building libraries for use within a local build tree, where the relocatable objects are expected to remain available, and copying the contents of each object would only waste time and space.

An archive can either be thin or it can be normal. It cannot be both at the same time. Once an archive is created its format cannot be objcopy o binary only outputting 16 bit data without first deleting it and then creating a new archive in its place. Thin archives are also flattenedso that adding one thin archive to objcopy o binary only outputting 16 bit data thin archive does not nest it, as would happen with a normal archive.

Instead the elements of the first archive are added individually to the second archive. The paths to the elements of the archive are stored relative to the archive itself. Controlling ar on the command line objcopy o binary only outputting 16 bit data scripts: Controlling ar with a script Next: Most operations can also accept further member arguments, specifying particular files to operate on. If you wish, you may begin the first command-line argument with a dash.

The p keyletter specifies what operation to execute; it may be any of the following, but you must specify only one of them: Specify the names of modules to be deleted as member The ordering of members in an archive can make a difference in how programs are linked using the library, if a symbol is defined in objcopy o binary only outputting 16 bit data than one member.

If you specify no member arguments, all the files in the archive are printed. Since the point of this operation is speed, implementations of ar have the option of not updating the archive's symbol table if one exists. Too objcopy o binary only outputting 16 bit data different systems however assume that symbol tables are always up-to-date, so gnu ar will rebuild the table even with a quick append. If one of objcopy o binary only outputting 16 bit data files named in member Note this command is an exception to the rule that there can only be one command letter, as it is possible to use it as either a command or a modifier.

In either case it does the same thing. If you do not specify a memberall files in the archive are listed. If you do not specify a memberall files in the archive are extracted.

Files cannot be extracted from a thin archive. A number of modifiers mod may immediately follow the p keyletter, to specify variations on an operation's behavior: The specified archive is always created if it did not exist, when you request an update.

But a warning is issued unless you specify in advance that you expect to create it, by using this modifier. When adding files and the archive index use zero for UIDs, GIDs, timestamps, and use consistent file modes for all files. When this option is used, if ar is used with identical options and identical input files, multiple runs will create identical output files regardless of the input files' owners, groups, file modes, or modification times.

If binutils was configured with --enable-deterministic-archivesthen this mode is on by default. This will cause it to create archives which are not compatible with objcopy o binary only outputting 16 bit data native ar program on some systems. This is used if there are multiple entries in the archive with the same name.

Extract or delete instance count of the given name from the archive. If you do not specify this modifier, files extracted from the archive are stamped with the objcopy o binary only outputting 16 bit data of extraction. This option will cause gnu ar to match file names using a complete path name, which can be convenient when extracting a single file from an archive created by another tool.

You may use this modifier flag either with any operation, or alone. This can speed up building a large library in several steps. The resulting archive can not be used with the linker. If it already exists and is a regular archive, the existing members must be present in the same directory as archive.

If you would like to insert only those of the files you list that are newer than existing members of the same names, use this modifier. This is the default unless binutils was configured with --enable-deterministic-archives. The ar program also supports some command line options which are neither modifiers nor actions, but which do change its behaviour in specific ways: The behaviour produced by this option is the default for gnu ar.

This option is only available if the toolchain has been built with plugin support enabled. Please note that this plugin search directory is not the one used by ld 's -plugin option.

The GCC plugin is always backwards compatible with earlier versions, so it is sufficient to just copy the newest one. See See Target Selectionfor more information. This form of ar operates interactively if standard input is coming directly from a terminal. If you redirect standard input to a script file, no prompts are issued, and ar abandons execution with a nonzero exit code on any error.

The ar command language is not designed to be equivalent to the command-line options; in fact, it provides somewhat less control over archives. The syntax for the ar command language is straightforward: In the following descriptions, commands are shown in upper case for clarity. Whenever you use a list of names as part of the argument to an ar command, you can separate the individual names with either commas or blanks.

Commas are shown in the explanations below, for clarity. Here are the commands you can use in ar scripts, or when using ar interactively. Three of them have special significance: SAVE commits the changes so far specified by the script. Prior to SAVEcommands affect only the temporary copy of the current archive. May be executed with no effect even if no current archive is specified. The new archive is created with a temporary name; it is not actually saved as archive until you use SAVE.

You can overwrite existing archives; similarly, the contents of any existing file named archive will not be destroyed until SAVE. Output normally goes to the standard output stream; however, if you specify outputfile as a final argument, ar directs the output to that file. END Exit from arwith a 0 exit code to indicate successful completion.

This command does not save the output file; if you have changed the current archive since the last SAVE command, those changes are lost.

This single command is a gnu ar enhancement, rather than present for MRI compatibility. OPEN archive Opens an existing archive for use as the current archive required for many other commands. Any changes as the result of subsequent commands will not actually affect archive until you next use SAVE.

To execute this command without errors, both the file, and the module in the current archive, must exist. If no object files are listed as arguments, nm assumes the file a. For each symbol, nm shows: The symbol value, in the radix selected by options see belowor hexadecimal by default. At least the following types are used; others are, as well, depending on the object file format. If lowercase, the symbol is usually local; if uppercase, the symbol is global external. There are however a few lowercase symbols that are shown for special global symbols uv and w.

A The symbol's value is absolute, and will not be changed by further linking. B b The symbol is in the uninitialized data section known as BSS. C The symbol is common. Common symbols are uninitialized data. When linking, multiple common symbols may appear with the same name.

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The GNU objcopy utility copies the contents of an object file to another. It can write the destination object file in a format different from that of the source object file. The exact behavior of objcopy is controlled by command-line options. Note that objcopy should be able to copy a fully linked file between any two formats. However, copying a relocatable object file between any two formats may not work as expected.

When objcopy generates a raw binary file, it will essentially produce a memory dump of the contents of the input object file. All symbols and relocation information will be discarded. The memory dump will start at the load address of the lowest section copied into the output file. When generating an S-record or a raw binary file, it may be helpful to use -S to remove sections containing debugging information. In some cases -R will be useful to remove sections which contain information that is not needed by the binary file.

Note— objcopy is not able to change the endianness of its input files. If the input format has an endianness some formats do not , objcopy can only copy the inputs into file formats that have the same endianness or which have no endianness e.

However, see the --reverse-bytes option. The input and output files, respectively. If you do not specify outfile , objcopy creates a temporary file and destructively renames the result with the name of infile. See Target Selection , for more information. Write the output file using the object format bfdname. Use bfdname as the object format for both the input and the output file; i. Useful when transforming a architecture-less input file into an object file.

In this case the output architecture can be set to bfdarch. This option will be ignored if the input file has a known bfdarch. You can access this binary data inside a program by referencing the special symbols that are created by the conversion process.

Copy only the indicated sections from the input file to the output file. This option may be given more than once. Note that using this option inappropriately may make the output file unusable. Wildcard characters are accepted in sectionpattern. If the first character of sectionpattern is the exclamation point! Remove any section matching sectionpattern from the output file. Using both the -j and -R options together results in undefined behaviour.

Remove relocations from the output file for any section matching sectionpattern. When stripping symbols, keep symbol symbolname even if it would normally be stripped. Do not copy symbol symbolname from the source file. Do not copy symbol symbolname from the source file unless it is needed by a relocation. Keep only symbol symbolname global. Make all other symbols local to the file, so that they are not visible externally. In an ELF object, mark all symbols that have hidden or internal visibility as local.

This option applies on top of symbol-specific localization options such as -L. Convert a global or weak symbol called symbolname into a local symbol, so that it is not visible externally. Note - unique symbols are not converted. Give symbol symbolname global scoping so that it is visible outside of the file in which it is defined.

Permit regular expressions in symbolname s used in other command line options. If the first character of the symbol name is the exclamation point!

Do not copy compiler-generated local symbols. If interleaving has been enabled via the --interleave option then start the range of bytes to keep at the byte th byte. Only copy a range out of every breadth bytes. Header data is not affected. Select which byte in the range begins the copy with the --byte option. Select the width of the range with the --interleave-width option. This option is useful for creating files to program ROM.

It is typically used with an srec output target. Note that objcopy will complain if you do not specify the --byte option as well. The default interleave breadth is 4, so with --byte set to 0, objcopy would copy the first byte out of every four bytes from the input to the output. When used with the --interleave option, copy width bytes at a time. The start of the range of bytes to be copied is set by the --byte option, and the extent of the range is set with the --interleave option.

The default value for this option is 1. The value of width plus the byte value set by the --byte option must not exceed the interleave breadth set by the --interleave option. Set the access and modification dates of the output file to be the same as those of the input file. Operate in deterministic mode. When copying archive members and writing the archive index, use zero for UIDs, GIDs, timestamps, and use consistent file modes for all files.

If binutils was configured with --enable-deterministic-archives , then this mode is on by default. Do not operate in deterministic mode. This is the inverse of the -D option, above: This is the default unless binutils was configured with --enable-deterministic-archives. Convert debugging information, if possible. This is not the default because only certain debugging formats are supported, and the conversion process can be time consuming.

Fill gaps between sections with val. This operation applies to the load address LMA of the sections. It is done by increasing the size of the section with the lower address, and filling in the extra space created with val. Pad the output file up to the load address address. This is done by increasing the size of the last section. The extra space is filled in with the value specified by --gap-fill default zero. Set the start address of the new file to val. Not all object file formats support setting the start address.

Change the start address by adding incr. Some object file formats do not permit section addresses to be changed arbitrarily. Note that this does not relocate the sections; if the program expects sections to be loaded at a certain address, and this option is used to change the sections such that they are loaded at a different address, the program may fail.

Otherwise, val is added to or subtracted from the section address. See the comments under --change-addresses , above. If sectionpattern does not match any sections in the input file, a warning will be issued, unless --no-change-warnings is used. Set or change the LMA address of any sections matching sectionpattern. The LMA address is the address where the section will be loaded into memory at program load time.

Normally this is the same as the VMA address, which is the address of the section at program run time, but on some systems, especially those where a program is held in ROM, the two can be different. Set or change the VMA address of any section matching sectionpattern. The VMA address is the address where the section will be located once the program has started executing. Normally this is the same as the LMA address, which is the address where the section will be loaded into memory, but on some systems, especially those where a program is held in ROM, the two can be different.

If --change-section-address or --change-section-lma or --change-section-vma is used, and the section pattern does not match any sections, issue a warning. This is the default. Do not issue a warning if --change-section-address or --adjust-section-lma or --adjust-section-vma is used, even if the section pattern does not match any sections.

Set the flags for any sections matching sectionpattern. The flags argument is a comma separated string of flag names. Not all flags are meaningful for all object file formats. Add a new section named sectionname while copying the file. The contents of the new section are taken from the file filename. The size of the section will be the size of the file. This option only works on file formats which can support sections with arbitrary names.

Note - it may be necessary to use the --set-section-flags option to set the attributes of the newly created section. Place the contents of section named sectionname into the file filename , overwriting any contents that may have been there previously.

This option is the inverse of --add-section. This option is similar to the --only-section option except that it does not create a formatted file, it just dumps the contents as raw binary data, without applying any relocations.